Healthy nibbles

RAISIN

RAISIN

DID YOU KNOW?
The most common dried grape varieties are Sultanina (synonyms Sultana, Thompson Seedless) and Currants (Black Corinth and Zante currant).1 RAISIN
In California, where weather conditions are optimal for vineyards, grapes are dried by being placed in the sun. They produce natural seedless raisins, mostly made from Thompson Seedless varieties. In Turkey, before sun drying, grapes are treated with a dipping solution, which aims to increase the permeability of the wax layer of the berries to water and quicken drying.1 As the home of the Sultanina variety, Turkey is the leading supplier of Sultana raisins. Other major dried grape producing countries include China, Iran and India.
BENEFITS
Nutrients
Raisins are high in potassium and copper. They are also a source of fiber.2,3
Diabetes
Due to their particular nutritional composition, a 2013 study observed an association between raisin consumption and a reduced risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.4
Cardiovascular Health
Raisins may reduce the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease4 as they are a low to moderate glycemic-index food (an indication of the food's effect on blood sugar level).5,6 They may also have distinct beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk7 by decreasing plasma LDL “bad” cholesterol and may reduce hunger by altering hormones influencing satiety.8
FUN FACTS
The origin of the word raisin is the Latin racemes, which means a “cluster of grapes or berries”.9 Early hunter-gatherers made raisins by drying grapes in the sun.
Legend has it that Noah became the first viticulturist after seeing a male goat becoming cheerful after eating grapes.10
Cultivated by the Anatolian and Egyptians since ancient times, the grape was prized for its sweetness and wine production. RAISIN
References:

1)    Resolution OIV-VITI 522-2016. OIV Good Practises for Dried Grape Production Systems: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/4956/oiv-viti-522-2016-en.pdf.
2)    USDA Food Composition Databases. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 slightly revised May, 2016: https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list.
3)    Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32006R1924&from=en.
4)    Anderson JW et al. Raisin consumption by humans: effects on glycemia and insulinemia and cardiovascular risk factors. J Food Sci. 2013 Jun;78 Suppl 1:A11-7.
5)    Kim Y et al. Raisins are a low to moderate glycemic index food with a correspondingly low insulin index. Nutr Res. 2008 May;28(5):304-8.
6)    Anderson JW et al. Raisins compared with other snack effects on glycemia and blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Postgrad Med. 2014 Jan;126(1):37-43.
7)    Puglisi MJ et al. Raisins and additional walking have distinct effects on plasma lipids and inflammatory cytokines. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Apr 16;7:14.
8)    Puglisi MJ et al. Raisins and walking alter appetite hormones and plasma lipids by modifications in lipoprotein metabolism and up-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Metabolism. 2009 Jan;58(1):120-8.
9)    California Raisins Advertising History & Fun Facts. http://calraisins.org/california-raisins-advertising-history-fun-facts/
10)    Ernest L. Abel. Intoxication in Mythology: A Worldwide Dictionary of Gods, Rites, Intoxicants and Places. McFarland & Company (November 22, 2006).